Thoughts on the end of FNM, and its replacement with a casual tournament

Wizards announced changes to the FNM system that, in my opinion, effectively end the popular program and introduce something new with the FNM name.

The original announcement is here, and the WotC response to vocal criticism of the change is here, where it dominates the ‘News of the Day’ article.

Taken as a group, these changes will improve in-store play for some players, and make it worse for some others.

If you are intimidated by low-stakes competitive play, and prefer really casual events, these changes will be mostly positive for you.

If you love Standard and your local store supports it, these changes will be mostly neutral.

And if you love drafting, follow competitive sites and play to win at FNM drafts (the path that took me into competitive play), these changes are terrible.

I’ll just add a quick aside. This is not a cost-cutting exercise from Wizards. This is WotC spending money to (in their mind) improve programs for in-store play. This article argues it misses the mark, but I think WotC spending money on in-store play is a good thing if done well.


What was FNM?

FNM is a WotC promotion where WotC provide free prizes (in the form of unique foil promos, mostly of uncommons) to stores that run low-stakes tournaments with them.

Stores were mostly free to set the format of these events themselves.

Stores with a competitive clientele that focused on Modern could run a Modern event with the top four winning the promo cards. Stores whose playerbase was quite casual could run FNM and award one promo card to first, and three to random players.

The promo cards were sometimes crap noone wanted like this piece of shit.

At other times they were Standard staples with at least some cross-format appeal like this gem:

And at other times they have been chase commons and uncommons with beautiful art, and occasionally cards not otherwise available in foil.

These cards – Swords to Plowshares, Serum Visions, or very long ago Priest of Titania – all made the FNM program extremely popular with a considerable number of enfranchised, competitively minded players.

FNM will continue to exist but the promo cards are being replaced by foil tokens. For all intents and purposes, this kills the program for the semi-competitive enfranchised player. While there are exceptions, these players broadly do not care about tokens – they want to win playable cards.

These players also usually appreciate low print run reprints of cards like Serum Visions or Path to Exile, which can become difficult to trade for. Just having a few dozen more Serum Visions in binders in a city makes the card easier to acquire even if the retail price isn’t changed much.


What’s filling the void, and why doesn’t it suffice?

From the ashes of the old FNM, two new programs rise.

New FNM is intended to be a much more casual event, precisely because there are only tokens on the line, not popular cards. Responses from casual players are mixed, but (as far as I can tell from reading social media), are mostly ambivalent or slightly positive.

For the semi-competitive and competitive crowd, the new system offers Standard Showdown.

Standard Showdown was WotC’s response to the worst Standard environment since the days before the banning of Arcbound Ravager and seven of its partners in crime. Facing stores abandoning their flagship format, they offered stores additional prize support in the form of special booster packs that had less cards than usual but had more rares and foils, and (at first) could contain a Zendikar Expedition. This gave players who were fed up with cats being copied or Snugglecopters a material incentive to try Standard again.

There are three reasons Standard Showdown doesn’t fill the void left by FNM’s changes for semi-competitive and competitive players.

First, as implied by the name, it is Standard only.

Standard is a reasonable format right now and it is the most popular format of the various Constructed ones, but it is far from universally liked. Many stores simply cannot fire Standard events but have large Modern playerbases, or dozens eager to draft.

On top of that, there are niche stores where Legacy has a well-established playerbase.

These stores have no replacement for FNM. They can continue to host new FNM events with the new token promos, but given how available third party tokens of high quality are, I doubt these promos will attract players.

Secondly, the prize structure is much more of a lottery than many players like.

With today’s FNM, you know the prize structure. There’s a promo card worth perhaps $3 (for a dud) or $15 (for a very good one). You can sit down on your last match and think ‘I’m playing for $15 here’.

With Standard Showdown, you are playing for an undraftable pack with unpredictable value. While the mean (average) value of a cracked prize pack will be in the range of $3 plus whatever the new promo lands settle at, the median (i.e. midpoint) value will be basically just the new promo land.

If you like cracking packs these prizes are fine, but if you do not, they are not so hot.

Stores get 40% fewer Standard Showdown packs than they get FNM promo cards, so there are less prizes to go around, exacerbating this disappointment.

Thirdly, for reasons I cannot fathom, Standard Showdown is only allowed to be held on weekends. For suburban stores this is the logical time to run any event, but for CBD stores with an older clientele, this is a dealbreaker. These stores’ best customers are (mostly) 20 or 30 something office workers (my demographic), who love to rock up and play Magic after work, but for whom it is often a considerably bigger ask to show up on a weekend.

Taken together these three reasons mean that Standard Showdown is being poorly received by large parts of its target audience – and those players are now furious that they are losing FNM with nothing of value (to them) replacing it.


An Alternative

I’m not wedded to the current structure of FNM.

Wizards clearly want to encourage the more casual players to play Magic in store, and to enter laid-back tournaments with little on the line, and without facing as many highly skilled opponents that are playing to win. I’m 100% for encouraging this.

It is possible to create prize structures that promote this goal without removing a beloved program from enfranchised players.

WotC could combine the best of both worlds by offering more participation rewards for in-store play.

Imagine this – Wizards announce that in October, WPN stores at the lowest tier will be given 32 copies of an alternate art promo Rogue Refiner, 8 foil copies of that same promo, and 50 Goblin tokens to distribute as prize support split as they see fit between a minimum of four tournaments, of which at least one must be Standard, and at least one a Limited format. (Presently this store would get 12 Standard Showdown packs, and 16 FNM promo foils).

If that store had a competitive clientele, they could offer Friday and Saturday qualifier events each week, giving out very small prizes but allowing people entry into an end-of-month championship, where most of the promos will be given out to the top 4.

If the clientele are much more casual, it may be more appropriate to have Chaos Draft Friday which awards the tokens, and Standard Saturday with the promo Refiners, with every participant in Saturday events getting a non-foil promo while stocks last.

And yet another store might feel it best to have a Standard league, where you build your deck, change it as you wish, and play matches on your own time, with a big prize for playing games (win or lose) on the largest number of unique days.

Ultimately stores know their playerbase and would often come up with better ideas than I have here for their promos. As long as they are distributed with integrity and the distribution is clearly communicated to players, I’m fine with anything.

Just don’t scrap a popular vehicle for promo cards unless you are replacing it with something that’s at least as good as what is lost.

  • sirgog






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MTGO’s changes have made me nervous.

Edit: Following a couple questions on Reddit I’ll explain at the very end what MTGO redemption is. Just scroll to the bottom then return here.


If you look through my history on this site and on Reddit, you’ll see I’ve been pretty solidly behind MTGO’s general direction over the last couple of years, with the exception of the redemption changes (which came bundled with a decrease in draft entry fees, but overall I feel this was net negative).

My opinions changed this week. I’d like to outline my fears, and the reason I’ve significantly downsized my MTGO collection.

I’m not totally panic selling and I’m keeping my decks, but I have sold off the collection of format staples I had accumulated over a few years, and converted them into complete Amonkhet sets, ready to redeem.

Goodbye my playset of almost everything from MM2; goodbye Ancestral Vision, Scapeshift, and all my spare VMA dual lands and spare Snapcasters. And hello to 40 sets of Amonkhet.


The Rishadan Port Price Collapse, and its implications

I posted a thread on Reddit about a month ago that, as far as I can tell, precipitated a price crash despite not starting a lot of conversation.

This crash was always going to happen, but my post seems to have spooked two or more dealers into getting into an undercutting war rather than sitting on their stock.

MTGO – Why isn’t Rishadan Port in freefall? from mtgfinance

It turns out I was wrong. It’s not going to be 6 months for Port to be under 70, it will be 6 weeks. Four weeks after my prediction, it is buylisting at 73 (PRM version) and retailing at 80.5 tickets. (Prices taken from, an MTGO dealer I am not affiliated with but use as a priceguide and often buy from and sell to; there may be better deals available).

Now Port was always going to fall.

The card was ultra, ultra rare due to the nature of the Masques release, and ultra low supply cards with low demand are the most sensitive to crashing in price.

In MM2, the paper world experienced this with Daybreak Coronet while MTGO players saw Hurkyl’s Recall crash from $55 to $2.

When treasure chests were introduced there was serious panic that they would crash the value of older cards. I argued at the time that these fears were unfounded. But then two things changed.

First, there was the decision to aggressively pump the drop chance on some of the rarest cards online. Port, Wasteland – these cards had their drop rate more than double recently. As a result I expect a slow, steady decline (for the Wastelands and Force of Wills with high demand) and a rapid decline (for the likes of Port with low demand).

Secondly, there was the decision to award 1300 treasure chests per week – that’s nearly 6000 per month – in the format challenges.

This is a huge increase in supply, much more than I anticipated when I defended the introduction of Treasure Chests against criticisms from people saying ‘this will crash the value of my collection’.

I still don’t think the original chests would have crashed anything, but I do think the two changes combined mean that any non-redeemable MTGO collection is now a depreciating asset; much like a Standard staple approaching rotation like Gideon, Ally of Zendikar is.

This isn’t to say that a diversified Legacy collection on MTGO will crash in value next week, but I now project that it will trend downward over the medium term.

I own one multi-thousand dollar depreciating asset (my car), I don’t want to take the loss of owning a second one.

After a good deal of thought, I decided a couple weeks ago that if anything about MTGO’s future scared me, I would sell most of my valuable older cards and turn them into one of tickets, hard currency, or redeemable sets, and that I would downsize over time starting with selling off my extra VMA dual lands.


The Future of Redemption

And now we get to Announcement Week, and the mysterious announcement about digital Magic scheduled for Tuesday 13-Jun.

Redemption is a huge overhead for Wizards, but at the same time mass redemption (not players redeeming 4 sets for personal use, I’m instead talking paper MTG stores and e-stores redeeming 100 to 500 sets per month, every month) is the absolute pillar online cards derive value from.

This is the reason that MTGO dealers will pay you real life currency for bulk Event Tickets – they know they can trade to turn those tickets into redeemable sets, and sell those sets to paper MTG stores that are not affiliated with online dealers, acquiring real currency back from the store.

Wizards have made redemption worse on several occasions.

First they removed the ability to redeem sets released years and years ago (until about 2009 you could still redeem Invasion-era sets).

Then they upped the redemption fee from just postage, to $5 per set + postage, to $25 per set plus postage.

And most recently they severely restricted the redemption window, from ~24 months after a set releases to just ~6.

I’ve long feared that removing redemption was in WotC’s long term plans, I’ll go over why I recently began to fear it may be in the short term plans too.

Consider the timing of the ‘digital Magic’ announcement.

We all know that the Banned and Restricted announcement is the absolute most important piece of Magic news, especially when Standard could go many different ways.

Whatever the decision is – whether it’s a Marvel ban, no changes, an unbanning of Reflector Mage and/or Snugglecopter, some combination of the above, or something totally unexpected, the Standard B&R announcements will be the absolute centre of Magic discussion tomorrow. Discussion of other formats will be hot too.

Any other news released on the same day as the B&R announcement is going to be buried.

Political theorists have a term for releasing one piece of bad news strategically, in order to divert attention from another, more damaging piece of news. It is called a ‘Dead Cat strategy‘.

Wizards know this. Their decision to schedule “an announcement about digital Magic” on the same day as the B&R announcement may be harmless or even a mistake. But it may very well be that the B&R announcement is the dead cat being thrown on the table, in order to suppress discussion of redemption changes or redemption ending.

There’s just this circumstantial evidence that the announcement may be what I fear, nothing more than that. But if it is true, MTGO will go up in flames quickly. Every dealer will try to dump all their non-redeemable cards to turn them into redeemable sets, to get as much money out of the program as they possibly can.

As a form of insurance against this possibility, I’ve jumped the gun and actioned my plan to convert most of my collection into a few dozen Amonkhet sets.

After all, I insure my car, and I consider redemption ending tomorrow to be a more likely event than me needing to claim on my car insurance.



Two years ago I was confident that having a diversified collection on MTGO was fairly safe. Some cards would get reprinted and lose value, others would gain value, and ultimately I’d have real cashout equity if I wanted to quit the hobby, or needed money. Probably less than I paid to buy in, maybe more, but at least I’d get an appreciable fraction of my collection’s value back.

Six months ago, I still maintained that confidence while a number of other people were losing theirs.

As of the last week I have lost that confidence.

I’m no longer willing to have thousands of dollars tied up in MTGO cards. Hundreds of dollars (i.e. a deck or two) is fine, but thousands (i.e. enough staples to own the core of every deck in the format at once) is beyond my risk threshold.

I expect that dealers will have to increase their razor-thin margins on MTGO over the future if redemption remains uncertain. That will hurt me if I reverse today’s decision and buy back into a diversified collection again, but that’s a price I’m willing to pay to avoid carrying the risk of losing thousands.

If redemption does die, I’ll probably quit MTGO unless Wizards announce a realistic replacement system of providing cashout equity, perhaps something like the defunct Diablo 3 Real Money Auction House. Even then, I will assess any such development on its merits before deciding whether to quit or not.

Ultimately, Magic is too expensive to play if you don’t have cashout equity.

  • sirgog


Edit: MTGO’s redemption program lets you swap a complete digital set for the corresponding paper cards in exchange for a modest fee.

For instance I (in Australia) can pay USD 255 and ‘surrender’ 9 Amonkhet sets on MTGO (so 9 of each mythic, each rare, each uncommon, common and basic land, all non-foil, PW deck cards not required) and Wizards will send, via FedEx courier, a box the size and shape of a booster case with 9 boxed up complete AKH sets. If my sets were foil online, they’d send foil paper sets instead.

Wizards declare a value of USD 75 per set whether normal or foil, and I’m required to pay any Australian government import taxes and goods and services tax (currently $0 on orders under AUD 1000, and 5% import duty + 10% GST + AUD 50 processing fee on orders from AUD 1000 to 9999, hence 9 sets). Your country may charge more or less.

In my experience redemption takes about 10 days but can only be initiated at downtime, which is only once or twice per month. (Wizards do not guarantee that speed).

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Reflecting on Marvel – The 14-Jun Banned/Restricted Announcement

It’s that time again. Another banned and restricted announcement is coming, and a lot of eyes are on Standard.

In anticipation of what Wizards might decide, the secondary market on MTGO has priced in considerable ban risk on Marvel’s most expensive pieces.

Ulamog has fallen in price by 50% over the past week, and at the same time the most played mythic in Standard, Aetherworks Marvel, is less than one fifth the price of Torrential Gearhulk, a card of the same rarity printed in the same set. This is despite Blue Hulk seeing less than half the amount of play in Standard that Marvel does, and no appreciable amount of play in any other format.

The MTGO market moves faster than the paper secondary market, but these falls indicate a growing number of people do not expect the present Marvel decklists to remain legal in Standard, and those people are panic selling Ulamog, while dealers also reduce the number of copies they hold. I’ve not been watching but I expect you will see reductions in buylist prices for those cards in the paper world too.

In this article I want to look at when, how and why the banhammer should be used in general, then look at today’s Standard and offer my thoughts about the upcoming announcement.

In Defence of the Banhammer

I was pretty vitriolic in calling for a Felidar Guardian ban in Standard at the last two B&R announcements. (Or Saheeli. Saheeli would have worked too, but something had to go).

Since the cat was drowned, Standard has had its problems, but the format is in a much better place than it was when Copy Cat Combo was Tier 0.

That banning completely turned around the collapse in tournament attendance figures.

Nowhere was that clearer than on Magic Online, where the Standard leagues were less popular than the Modern leagues in the day following the April 24 ‘no bans’ announcement. Normally, the Standard leagues have 2-3 times the attendance that the Modern ones get.

Tournament attendance is the primary basis on which banned and restricted decisions should be made.

When a deck is driving players away from competitive play, it is too late to print an answer in the next set and hope that the answer solves the problem. Magic R&D simply does not work on that timeline.

In these situations, the format needs to be altered to deal with the problem – and the tool Wizards has historically used to do this is the banned and restricted list.

Under this criteria, the ban of Splinter Twin in Modern was not justified, because the ban drove people away from the format. I’ve seen no compelling evidence that the Twin deck was driving people away from competitive Modern.

However, the two Standard bannings, and also the recent Modern bannings (Git Probe and GGT), were both successes. As was a historic example, the mass banning of almost every card in Ravager Affinity Aggro back in the days of Kamigawa.

After Emrakul met her Promised End, the Snugglecopter was scuttled and Reflector Mage took a long hard look at itself, Standard tournament attendance revived. It plunged again when the Copy Cat Combo decks were perfected, but kicking the cat did solve that problem.

A few players may well have walked away from competitive play because they had just bought into a Standard deck to see it get banned, but the format cannot be held ransom to the demands of people that buy into obviously broken Tier 0 decks.

If you buy into a deck as overwhelmingly dominant in its format as Copy Cat Combo or OGW-era Modern Helldrazi, you have no-one to blame but yourself when the deck is smashed by the banhammer.

Buying a broken deck is not an investment to be amortised over nine months (in Standard) or five years (in Modern). It’s an investment that must be amortised in weeks – something that will not happen unless you are entering multiple small tournaments each week and a couple of big events on top of that.

Alternatives to the Banhammer

One alternative to swinging the banhammer is simply declaring additional cards to be legal in a format. This actually has a partial precedent – from October 1999 until October 2002, the Extended format (a format somewhat similar to today’s Modern) explicitly allowed the ten Revised dual lands despite them not being in any of the sets legal in Extended.

This, however, creates serious problems with card availability.

Pithing Needle is one example of a card that I believe would drive the Marvel menace to the sidelines, and might also have dealt with the Copy Cat Combo menace.

However, it hasn’t had a printing below foil mythic (Masterpiece) rarity since Return to Ravnica, which is now several years ago.

Arbitrarily declaring Pithing Needle legal in Standard (or jamming it into one of the Planeswalker decks) would set a precedent I’m not too happy with, where Standard requires a card not available in current boosters (the Masterpiece version is too rare to count).

In particular this is bad for Magic tournaments run by new shops or small shops. These stores will not have an extensive inventory of cards from a few years ago, and will struggle to meet demand – potentially pushing their customers toward competitors.

In addition to this logistical issue, adding ‘must-sideboard’ cards to an environment is (at least in my opinion) bad for the game. I feel Modern would be a better format if players didn’t feel obligated to run Stony Silence and/or Rest In Peace in sideboards.

There are only 15 slots in a sideboard; reducing that to 11 is not a good thing.

The banhammer is a last resort method for Wizards R&D to fix their own screwups. R&D needs to get better at detecting these problems (it’s hard to believe that Marvel was printed without an “Aetherworks Marvel enters the battlefield tapped” clause). But any changes in R&D coming out of the fiasco that was the last year of Standard will not flow through until (at the earliest) early next year, and R&D are still going to be human.

Humans screw up. R&D will continue to screw up. The banhammer is there to provide a painful way to reduce the damage caused by these mistakes.


The State of Standard

Standard now is a multi-deck format, but one with a clear best deck. Aetherworks Marvel combo, specifically the Temur version, is the format’s top deck by far.

Ulamog, the Ceaseless Hunger, is a perfectly fair Magic card if you ramp up to it. It takes over the game entirely, but for ten mana, that’s what you would expect it to do.

When Ulamog comes out on turn 4, it ceases to be a reasonable Magic card. In a Temur energy shell, the turn 4 Ulamog isn’t very common, but it does happen. When you fail to hit Ulamog, you either get Chandra, Flamecaller (weaker than the big Eldrazi, but trades off being weaker for also being hardcastable), or in the total fail case you get an energy source, which then helps you power toward spinning the Marvel again on your next turn.


The last weekend’s Standard GP results showed that the Marvel combo decks are far and away the best decks in Standard, and while Temur Marvel didn’t dominate the top 8s, it did dominate the top 32 of each of the three GPs, making up about one-third of each T32.


Marvel – A Design Mistake

Aetherworks Marvel is surprisingly hard to interact with, and it does extremely dangerous things.

It breaks two of the most fundamental rules of Magic.

Firstly, it allows cards to impact the gamestate without being drawn. I cover this topic in another article. Marvel’s rate for doing this isn’t particularly egregious, and so this on its own isn’t a big problem.

Secondly, and far more importantly, Marvel facilitates other cards breaking what I term the Third Fundamental Rule of Magic – that cards must have an impact commensurate with the amount of investment (mana, and other costs) required to cast them.

The present Standard format has a number of extremely high impact threats.

While Ulamog is the best of these, it is not the only one. The format also contains Kozilek the Great Distortion; Desolation Twin; Void Winnower; Elder Deep Fiend; Chandra, Flamecaller; Approach of the Second Sun and Sorin, Grim Nemesis, and these will soon be joined by a Nicol Bolas card. (I’m deliberately not going to discuss the highly credible leak of Bolas but instead I’ll just assume it’s something similar to the Conflux Bolas card – a devastatingly powerful lategame trump card with a high mana cost).

These cards are balanced by virtue of their very high mana costs – in short, the investment required to deploy them. Marvel removes this balancing effect.

The other factor making Marvel a menace is its inherent randomness. Much like losing to a Miracled Bonfire of the Damned made you feel helpless and that your decisions over the entire game didn’t matter (and winning with Miracle cards felt anticlimactic), winning or losing with Marvel often comes down to a game of percentages.

In a gamestate where hitting big will win you the game and whiffing on Marvel will lose it, assuming you play 4 copies of Ulamog and 2 Chandra, spinning Marvel basically turns the entire game into a coinflip. Again, anticlimactic.


So What’s The Solution?

I’ve spent this entire article making what seems like a case for banning Aetherworks Marvel. The deck is too large of a metagame share, is dominating major events, and creates miserable play experiences.

However, that’s not what I believe Wizards should do. Tournament attendance is not in freefall. While I believe banning Aetherworks Marvel could be justified, I believe there is a better answer.

Spell Queller is a powerful card that is extremely good at proactively answering Aetherworks Marvel. It is a maindeckable card, solid against the entire format, but truly excellent at causing combo decks to stumble.

The decision to ban Reflector Mage, while reasonable at the time, has resulted in the Queller seeing less play in Standard than it otherwise would have.


My three suggestions for the 14-Jun B&R announcement.

Firstly, announce that Aetherworks Marvel Combo is a problem deck, and that while no bans are hitting it this time around, make a firm commitment to ban Aetherworks Marvel at the very next B&R announcement if the deck improves in metagame share.

During the washup of Tempest-Urza Standard, which was dominated by broken combo decks that required three waves of bannings, Standard had a format ‘watch list’.

This was a list of cards that were not banned but that Wizards wanted to warn players were at serious risk of being banned.

As part of the ‘warning’ about Marvel, reintroduce the Watch List.

Secondly, unban Reflector Mage in Standard.

Reflector Mage is a strong card, and one that was banned because the WU Flash deck with both Reflector Mage and Snugglecopter was considered too strong.

However, that deck has lost Snugglecopter and is not well positioned against two recent printings, Heart of Kiran and Sweltering Suns. Both of those cards are absolute must-answers for the formerly oppressive WU deck. (The deck has answers; it just has to have them at the correct time).

Reflector Mage being legal in the format would add more Spell Quellers into the metagame. Queller is extremely good at slowing down Marvel’s big turn long enough to win the game, and in a last resort situation, Reflector Mage itself can answer a resolved Ulamog, potentially putting you back in the game.

The 2 power on both Reflector Mage and Spell Queller also ensures that a deck built around these cards will not easily get to use the most powerful vehicle still legal in Standard, Heart of Kiran.

There has never been an unbanning in Standard before, but there is a first time for everything.

Reflector Mage should be placed right onto the new Watch List, although I don’t think it will actually need to be banned again.

Thirdly, no changes are needed in any other major format, except to put Death’s Shadow on the Modern watchlist. Legacy is extremely diverse at present, and while Modern and Vintage aren’t perfect, both are doing pretty well.

I’ll leave the MTGO-specific 1v1 Commander and Pauper formats to people that pay more attention to them than I do. It would not surprise me in the slightest to see Baral, Chief of Compliance taken out the back and shot. Pauper seems in acceptable shape but again, I’m no expert there.

That’s enough rambling for today.

  • sirgog



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An open letter: The failings of MTGO’s trading system, and how to solve them

This was originally posted on the old Wizards of the Coast boards in September 2014. Those boards are now long gone, but I stand by the ideas I posted back then.

I’ve edited for clarity and for the different format of my blog, but the content is the same.

As this was first posted three years ago, it references some card values that are no longer close to accurate.


The failings of MTGO’s trading system, and how to fix them.

Rather than explaining why I think the trading system in MTGO is the most serious ‘big problem’ with the client right now, I’ll encourage MTGO players to carry out a small experiment.

Over the next week, play as you normally would, and record how long you spend logged into the MTGO client. Don’t count extended AFK time, just the time you are there, paying attention to the client.

Record how long you spend actually playing games of Magic or other related activities like building draft decks, and how much total downtime you have (time between tournament rounds, or time spent acquiring cards you want for a deck, or time spent checking prices and then selling the cards you just drafted).

I believe that if you play either Limited or competitive Constructed much at all, you will find that collection management related downtime significantly cuts into your Magic playing time.

Collection management downtime is a big part of paper MTG, but like cards becoming accidentally damaged or sleeves becoming marked, trading is something that MTGO can do better than paper.

This letter is about my proposals to decrease the time wasted on collection management by players, so that we can spend more time on the parts of MTGO that we actually enjoy – competitive-minded decision making in a world of incomplete information and nearly unlimited possibilities.


An aside on trade history:

This is background info and can be skipped, but may interest some. If that’s not you – just scroll down to the next bold text.

MTGO player-to-player trading was originally designed, like many other parts of the game, to mirror the experience of paper trading closely.

Players stick their currently unneeded cards into virtual trade binders (making them visible to prospective trade partners) or they can keep certain cards in reserve. For example, I might own four City of Traitors that I don’t put in my trade binder, but if you have a Tarmogoyf I want I might be willing to make them visible then.

All transactions are direct player-to-player trades.

Early on, before I started playing on MTGO, the Event Ticket became THE established currency of trading. It could have been packs instead, but for various reasons related to prize support, liquidity of certain boosters, and tickets being a cheaper object than packs, tickets made more sense as a currency. Event tickets being a trade currency has been given ‘official’ approval by WotC in many an article since then, for example in articles that focus on budget decks.

Early in MTGO, card liquidity* was low, until around the era of Betrayers of Kamigawa, when human dealers were phased out in favor of bots.

Early bots didn’t handle the whole trade, they just spammed a trade message in various channels over and over alerting you to the offers the human behind the bot was offering.

But soon fully automated bots appeared that used optical character recognition to work out which cards a trading partner had in their binder. They quickly became common.

Owning a trade bot was initially extremely lucrative and their coding was a guarded secret, but in time they became widespread and margins became lower. Now, it is effectively impossible to be a dealer on MTGO without running multiple bots 24/7.

The human element of trading from MTGO’s early days is completely gone, and there is third party bot software available to ‘buy’ a license for in exchange for a fee.

This isn’t an attempt at nostalgia for the old days. There were positives to the pre-bot era, such as the community that developed around the ‘Auctions’ channel.

But overall I think the automation of trading has been a good thing in general – drafters can offload undesired cards with less effort than before, Constructed players (competitive or casual) can assemble decks more easily and at a lower price, and price speculators can quickly acquire 200 copies of the card they expect to be the Next Big Thing. In short, liquidity in the market has increased, and this is a good thing. Collection management downtime has decreased dramatically.

However, it’s not perfect.

* – For those without economics knowledge, ‘liquidity’ means how easily something can be traded. Increased liquidity generally reduces the gap between buy and sell prices. You can see this in paper Magic, where many dealers will offer a higher percentage of their sell price for highly-in-demand Standard cards they can move quickly, and a lower percentage of their sell price for hard-to-sell cards like a Japanese foil Goblin Welder (even though the latter will command a high price if you find the right buyer).


Problems with the current system:

Firstly, event tickets are indivisible, meaning that players cannot trade for low value cards without trusting a bot that has a partial ticket accounting system or finding a mutually acceptable low value trade item. This is not a good system at all as more than 95% of the cards opened in booster packs have a value well south of one ticket.

This rewards unscrupulous bot owners (closing one bot and reopening a new account can result in you stealing up to 99 cents from each of a LARGE number of players, this really adds up).

It also has nonmonetary effects – it feels much worse to trade for obscure cards. Consider a card like Clone – making a trade of one event ticket for four copies of Clone feels really bad, even when there is the promise of future credit. (At the time of writing, Clone’s price was 0.03 tickets).

If I wanted Clones, I might be happy ‘throwing away’ USD 0.88 for the convenience of quickly finding four copies of a desired card, but I would still feel bad about hitting ‘confirm’ on a trade where I’m getting only 12% of the value of what I am trading away.

Secondly, if you want a card, there is no easy way to find someone that has the card you want. (This is less true in 2017 than it was in 2014 – there are more dealers that try to stock everything than there were 3 years ago). You can go to the message boards and find someone that claims to have the card you want, but the messageboard reflects only what people claim to have, and with a limited amount of characters that can be typed into a message, it will not necessarily be accurate.

For example, take two cards at opposite ends of the desirability spectrum, Clone and Cryptic Command. (At the time of writing, the first bot I checked is buying a Modern Masters Cryptic Command at 21.01 tickets and selling at 23.49).

A search in the client for the text string ‘Cryptic’ will find a selection of bots that claim to have Cryptic Command in stock at a certain price. This can be misleading.

Often what they mean is ‘The last time I updated this message I was selling Cryptic Command at 23.49 tickets, but since then I sold my last copy’, or worse, it can mean ‘The last time I updated this message I was selling Cryptic Command at 23.49 tickets, but since then I decided to up the price to 24.99 tickets and I hope you don’t notice’.

Your search will also find bots that are offering to buy Cryptic Command at various prices, as well as people that are trading Cryptic Commands but will not disclose their prices, and it will also pick up bots with Cryptic in their name.

A search for ‘Command’ or ‘Cryptic Command’ will also work, but will show less results. Players familiar with Magic lingo often abbreviate the card as just ‘Cryptic’, and those search terms will not connect with this abbreviation.

A player unfamiliar with the nuances of MTGO trading and card nicknames may be disheartened to see only a small number of people claiming to deal with this card.

It’s worse again if you want a specific edition of the card, particularly a rare one like an ME4 Tundra.

A search for ‘Clone’ on the other hand will show very few results, as while a large number of players have the card and are happy to trade it, they do not consider this fact worth advertising.

Thirdly, there is no requirement that players honour their publicly advertised prices. This is a major timewaster for people that are trying to source a card.

Many of the larger bot chains have algorithms written into them that dynamically increase card prices as you try to buy more copies of it. So buying one Cryptic Command might cost you 23.49 tickets, but buying two might cost you 23.79 tickets each, and four might cost 24.49 each. (2017 edit: This has largely changed now – most bots will sell a playset of a card at the same per-unit price as they would sell one).

Fourth, the trade system generally requires people using it to share a language, which in practice means English as I am yet to encounter a bot in any other language.

My suggestions would overcome this barrier, allowing me (a person who speaks only English) to trade to a player that speaks only Japanese. It would also improve the experience of trading with a person who speaks French as a first language alongside just a few words of English.

Fifth, and possibly most importantly, trades require both partners to be online.

Sixth and finally, the trade system does not support large trades well. Several years ago I traded a very large number of tickets (500) for four sets of Return to Ravnica. I had to talk the set seller through a way to do the trade that didn’t expose either of us to potential fraud. Otherwise, I could have let them take 400 tickets in one trade and taken all the mythics and rares and then blocked them, effectively stealing nearly 100 tickets.

This could be much worse with 4x foil sets.

Whilst I believe WotC take a hard line against using deception in trades, it would be better if the system simply did not allow it.


My suggestions:

Suggestion #1 – Increased currency granularity:

Firstly, eliminate event tickets and replace them with an account balance that is used to enter tournaments, purchase digital MTGO products from the store and can be used as a currency to conduct trades (but never withdrawn for cash).

2017 edit: Note that these would be separate from Play Points, which would continue to be unable to be traded. (PP did not exist when this letter was originally posted).

If there are legal reasons (gambling laws, money laundering laws), or if credit card fraud risk stops this being viable, instead introduce a new digital object, the ‘chip’, which represents one-thousandth of an event ticket. Allow event tickets to be ‘opened’ like boosters (becoming 1000 chips), and phase out Event Tickets, using chips as the new way to pay tournament entry fees. (For example, you could enter a 2 ticket Constructed 1v1 queue by paying 2 Event Tickets, or alternately by paying 2000 chips).

Either of these would solve problem 1 outright. Low value cards would immediately become readily tradeable, as the vast majority of cards still hold a value of at least one-tenth of a cent.

Secondly, keep the person-to-person trading interface that exists now, but create and heavily promote a new trading system that mirrors the broker-based market in the MMO EVE Online (and consider paying CCP, the makers of EVE, to help you implement it into MTGO).


Suggestion #2 – Sell Orders:

This is basically a buyout-only ‘auction house’.

A ‘sell order’ is a pledge to sell a card for a certain price, if a buyer can be found in a given timeframe. When you create a sell order for a card, the card is removed from your collection and placed in escrow for the duration of the sell order.

If a buyer is found, the card is delivered from escrow to that buyer immediately, and the tickets/chips/account balance is transferred to the seller.

If the sell order does not fill, or if the seller elects to cancel their order, the card is returned from escrow to the seller at the end of the time period.

I see no reason to augment the sell order option with an ‘auction house’ or ‘best offer’ options when you have…

Suggestion #3 – Buy Orders:

A ‘buy order is the reverse – a pledge to buy a card for a given price, if a seller can be found in the relevant timeframe. The entire price of the cards in question is deducted from your account balance and put in escrow (alternately, tix and chips are put in escrow).

If a seller is found you get the cards and they get the escrow; if no seller is found, you get the currency back when the order expires or when you elect to cancel it.

In the event of a card being banned or unbanned in any format, all outstanding buy/sell orders up for that card would be immediately suspended until the order placer next logs on, at which point they will receive a message:

“The card Show and Tell has been banned in the Legacy format, do you still want to offer 105.003 tickets for each of four copies of Urza’s Saga foil Show and Tell?”

Buy and sell orders should be anonymous, and treat different versions of a card as totally different objects. (Example: a Mercadian Masques Counterspell would be treated as a different item to a Tempest Counterspell, even though many players would consider them interchangeable. A text search for Counterspell would show both, as well as their foil versions, and the various other printings of the card).

Players could look at their objects in escrow, buy orders and sell orders at any time, cancel orders at any time, and modify an individual buy or sell order once per hour. (Once per hour would prevent 0.001 ticket price wars being won by bots that are programmed to check if they have been undercut or outbid every minute).


An example of buy and sell orders in practice:

Imagine I want to acquire three copies of the card Voice of Resurgence. Being a little vain, I want my Voices to be shiny. (At the time of writing in 2014, the first bot I checked was buying foil Voice of Resurgence for 33.42 and selling for 40.49, so ‘fair price’ is around 36-37 tickets)

– I browse the sell orders and see a total four foil Voices for sale, at 36.999, 37.000, 41.000 and 236.000 tickets.

– I decide to buy the two cheaper copies of the card, but feel 41 is more than I’m prepared to pay (and I sure as hell am not paying 236). Without me ever knowing who I am trading with, I select ‘buy’ on the first two. My account balance drops by $73.999 (tracked to a tenth of a cent), the two foil Voices are transferred from escrow into my account, and the account balance of my two trading partners is increased by $36.999 and $37 respectively.

– I then decide to post my own buy order to try to get the third one more cheaply than 41.000. Looking at the buy orders up currently, I see four at 24.777, 28.599, 30.600 and 30.602. I consider offering 30.603, but then think that I will get the card more quickly if I offer a little more, and so I offer 35.000 and set a duration of 72 hours on my offer. My account balance goes down by $35, and this store credit goes into escrow. For the next three days, if anyone wants to sell a foil Voice for 35 tickets, even if I am offline, they can sell it to my order.

– Before anyone fills my order, the DCI shocks everyone by emergency banning Voice of Resurgence in Legacy. (Don’t make banned/restricted list announcements drunk, folks). I don’t care, as I wanted the card for a Modern deck. My order now goes into stasis until I log on and confirm ‘yes, I still want the card at that price’ at which point the three day order period begins again. Alternately, I could elect to cancel the order and offer it again at a lower price.

A second example:

I play an M15 draft, and one of the cards I acquire is an In Garruk’s Wake.

It is my ninth copy. I do not want this card, I don’t want any of the nine, but I cannot be bothered posting a sell order to try to get top dollar for it. I just want them gone.

I right click it in the collection and a list of buy orders for the card appears on my screen. The first person is offering 0.032 tickets for (M15 non-foil) In Garruk’s Wake but is only buying four copies. The second person (presumably a dealer) is offering 0.027 tickets for the card but is willing to buy as many as 233 copies.

I then am given the option ‘Sell four copies for 0.032 tickets each?’ which I click. After a confirmation window, 0.128 tickets leaves the first buyer’s escrow and is credited to my account balance. Then I right-click the In Garruk’s Wakes again, and have the option ‘Sell 5 copies for 0.027 tickets each?’ Again I accept, and the IGWs go to the dealer, and $0.135 is added to my store balance.

Of my six complaints about the trade system, this proposed overhaul would address five. The only one not covered is the availability of obscure cards, as many human players will not bother posting them. However, it is likely that dealers (human or bots) will fill that void, making sure that there is still liquidity in the Chimney Imp market – and more relevantly, in the market for low (non-zero) demand, low supply cards like foil Massacre.


Monetizing the Trade System:

WotC are a business, and implementing this system so far looks like a lot of cost for no revenue gain.

There’d be customer goodwill (which is meaningful) and also perhaps some people drafting more often because they can sell their cards more quickly. Those matter but probably would not cover the cost of recoding trading entirely.

There are other ways they could get more out of the system without undermining customer goodwill.

Taking a cut from each trade (even a 0.5% cut) would cost this goodwill, and I don’t even think it’s the best way to monetize the system either.

Presently, a moderate number of players pay third parties for licenses to use their trading bot software.

WotC should have a goal: to get this money in their pockets instead.

A concrete suggestion:

Firstly, impose a limit of buy orders and sell orders active at any time for a given account. 8 buy orders and 8 sell orders, with buy orders capped at 4 copies of the card (no limit for sell orders), and order duration capped at 72 hours, would be a good starting point.

Alternately, consider a limit of having 100 orders total, with orders for multiple copies of a card counting multiple times. So ‘Want to Buy: 3 Wasteland’ would take up 3 of your 100 orders.

That is enough to post buy orders for most of a Constructed deck at once, especially when you consider that you’d be buying many cards directly from other people’s sell orders, but it is not enough to run an online dealership or to build sets at bargain prices for redemption purposes.

Secondly, offer players the option to pay USD6 per month (by credit card, or by event tickets/account balance/chips) to have these restrictions considerably reduced. USD6 is a fairly arbitrary estimate at being a price that is reasonable but generates real, ongoing revenue. Accounts that pay this charge would have a limit of 500 buy orders, 500 sell orders, and a cap of 12 copies of a card per order and 7 day time limits.

Effectively, paying this $6 per month gets you all of the benefits you would get today by running a single bot, but the money goes to WotC, not a third party bot coder.

Finally, offer players the option to pay USD50 per month to have the restrictions entirely removed.

This expensive option would give you the benefits currently reserved for people that run trade bots on a dozen accounts or more.

A second option to monetize the system is to require a deposit on sell order listings and buy order listings, that is refunded in full if the order fills. This would dramatically cut down the number of ‘nuisance’ listings where someone posts a ridiculous lowball price such as ‘Buying foil FUT Tarmogoyf, 12 tix’ in the hopes that someone misreads that as 120 tix. This deposit could be as high as 1% of the order amount, and it would serve as a tax on dealers much more than a tax on the Limited and Constructed players that generate WotC revenue.

In summary:

The people that speak highly of MTGO’s current trading system are mostly dealers that make a living (or at least heavily subsidize their hobby) from being the middleman between buyers and sellers that cannot find each other.

The prevalence of third party bots available for license is a necessary evil right now, but poses major risks to MTGO’s integrity.

There has already been at least one incident where a ‘trading bot’ program had trojans built into it that allowed the bot owners to potentially steal cards from those running the bot. If this happened on a big scale, it would be both a public relations nightmare for Wizards, and a financial risk too.

In addition, it’s hard to know how much strain bot chains put on the server currently, but it must be significant. There seem to be over a thousand bot accounts logged on at any time, most have large numbers of cards for trade, and opening a trade with one would query the server ‘How many of each card does this player have for trade?’ every time.

There’s two more advantages WotC gain before even considering possible revenue from the trading system.

Firstly, by speeding up collection management, players that draft a lot will spend less time on collection management, potentially allowing them to fit in one more draft here and there.

Secondly, by having supply and demand driven broad price guidelines publically available in-client, WotC aren’t intervening in the secondary market, but they still manage to minimize the number of times a new player goes through the experience of being badly ripped off in a trade. This might improve new player retention.

For these reasons, I feel replacing the present trade system with a buy order/sell order system should be the next ‘big project’ undertaken by MTGO management after the completion of leagues.

If done well, it will make customers happy, entice them to spend more, and assist in retention and growth – a trifecta that can only be good for MTGO and WotC.

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Design Changes Over The Past 20 Years: A Balance Sheet, Part 2

This is a follow up to Part 1 which looks at the decline of combo (specifically fast mana and tutoring) and proactive control.

The first part focused on design changes that were largely complete by the time Mirrodin came around. Today, I’ll look at design changes that came during the naughties.

These changes may have started earlier (for instance, Counterspell was last printed about two years before Mirrodin), but I associate them personally with the early Modern era.

From Mana Drain, to Counterspell, to Cancel: The decline of Reactive Control

Reactive Control, as a deck archetype, differs from Proactive Control, in that proactive control changes the game rules to prevent its opponent from executing its gameplan at all. Reactive control instead nullifies the opponent’s gameplan.

This artwork looks spectacular, but I just cannot work out what it is supposed to represent. Constipation so powerful it causes flight?

No card exemplifies reactive control as a strategy quite like Counterspell.

Three words of game rule text can say a lot. Vindicate reads “Destroy target permanent”. Tidings reads “Draw four cards”. Simple text, powerful effects.

Counterspell goes further, using three words where one would suffice.


For a long time in Magic, two untapped Islands was taken as a sign that any spell the opponent tried to cast could be answered cleanly.

At its best, Counterspell is a tempo blowout, trading one card and two mana for the one card and six mana the opponent invested casting their Shivan Dragon.

But at its worst, Counterspell saw you leave two mana untapped and unused for three turns, after which you eventually gave in and countered a spell that wasn’t central to your opponent’s gameplan.

In this scenario you spent eight mana in total – the six that was held unused, plus the two spent to cast Counterspell – answering a three-drop.

The existence of Counterspell changed Magic fundamentally. One drops could get in under Counterspell and were stronger as a result.

But most of all, whether you had Counterspell in hand or not was hidden information. One of the first articles I wrote after setting up this site looked at how games and matches are often decided by hidden information.

High quality Counterspell effects create all sorts of mindgames and bluffs.

Skilled players would often untap, draw, fake a smile after seeing their card, and then pass the turn with two untapped Islands on the battlefield and four irrelevant lands in hand.

The opponent would often assume that anything they played would be countered, and so would play nothing, giving the bluffer time to draw either an actual answer, or an actual threat. They had no idea that the player representing Counterspell in fact drew a Disenchant that is totally dead in the present matchup.

Counterspell itself appeared in the very first Magic sets. But it wasn’t for a few months, until the release of Legends, that we would see just how absurd counterspells could get.

This card was a mistake, although it was actually a fair Magic card when (almost) reprinted with an additional two green mana added to its cost.

Mana Drain isn’t quite good enough for Vintage these days and is banned everywhere else, although I would be interested to see the effect it would have if legal in Legacy.

Where Counterspell efficiently answers a threat, Mana Drain answers the threat and punishes the opponent severely for trying to progress their gamestate.

This card is an extreme example of an oppressive reactive control card. Put yourself in the mindset of the player facing Mana Drain.

If you do not try to advance your gamestate by casting spells, you will lose.

The Mana Drain player will remain patient and do nothing. Eventually you will have to give in, allowing them an opportunity to spring the Mana Drain trap on a big spell.

If you do not, they will eventually be able to cast their own threat with multiple counterspells to back it up.

But if you do try to advance your own gamestate, the opponent Mana Drains you, then uses the extra mana to cast an overwhelming threat.

This card was rightly retired from the reprint roster. Until quite recently it was a frequent 2-3 of in Vintage, but now the ability to cleanly answer it with Flusterstorm has largely removed it from competitive play.

I would argue that Counterspell, and various alternatives of comparable or slightly lower power (Mana Leak, Forbid, Dismiss, etc) added an enormous amount of strategic complexity and interesting gameplay to Magic.

Too much of a good thing

I love beer. But too much of it will give me a nasty headache the next morning.

Just like this, the ‘Draw Go’ era of Magic took universal answers to unhealthy extremes.

In this era, it was perfectly reasonable to build a deck with 2-4 threats, about 30 hard answer cards (Counterspells and the like, plus some one-for-one removal to answer threats that you miss), and about 27 lands. This did result in a lot of quite dull games, where the first player to be proactive lost the game.

There is a critical mass of powerful reactive control cards that, once all of them are legal in a format, they begin to dominate formats.

This critical mass is far beyond anything that has existed recently in any competitive format. These days we do not even get one card of this calibre in most Standard formats. (We do have Censor at present, which is a high-quality universal answer of a sort; I am hoping this is the first of several).

Removing almost all high-quality Counterspell effects from Standard is like swearing off alcohol entirely in response to one hangover.

I believe Standard would be much better with one or even two Counterspell-calibre universal answers.

But once players can play 4 copies of each of Counterspell, Mana Leak, Forbid, Dismiss, Memory Lapse and Force Spike all at once, these cards reach a critical mass that ruins games.


Reanimation: Allowing Players To Ignore Mana Costs

Two mana, and a dead creature comes back worse than it was. Surely this card is fair.

Or is it?

Animate Dead and many, many similar cards break the Third Fundamental Rule of Magic in half.

If you can perform the necessary setup, these cards allow you access to extremely powerful effects for two mana.

Griselbrand’s “Pay 7 life: Draw 7 cards”?

Emrakul, the Aeons Torn’s “Annihilator 6”?

These abilities are potentially yours for as little as one mana and some life, courtesy of Tempest’s Reanimate. (You need to jump through additional hoops to bring back Emrakul, due to her shuffle trigger, but it is still possible).

Reanimation effects have been hit over the head with the nerfbat so hard that you can still hear their families screaming for mercy.

Unconditional reanimation with a manageable drawback cost 1-2 mana from Alpha right through to Apocalypse, and a lot of cards were printed at that power level.

There were also a large number of 2 to 3 mana cards that reanimated a creature, gave it haste, and then exiled it at end of turn.

This card was awesome in Standard. With Bottle Gnomes, it founded the core of a deck named “Disco Gnomes”. Deck names were so cool in the 1990s.

Then in the early days of Modern, we saw a few 4 mana reanimation spells with upside. Dread Return and the instant-speed Makeshift Mannequin were both fine examples.

This card is banned in Modern for very good reason. I dread any day it returns to the format.

Now, we pay 5 mana for unconditional reanimation, with Liliana, Death’s Majesty being as good as these cards get.

I believe this change in design philosophy has been a change for the better.

Unconditional reanimation at low cost imposed considerable design constraints on other cards in early Magic.

Creatures that had a high battlefield impact had to be severely weakened lest they become overpowered in conjunction with reanimation.

Force of Nature is an example of a card that had a drawback designed to hammer anyone that reanimated the card early in the game. Note that if you never pay the upkeep, it kills its controller before killing the opponent.

The other cards that needed to be carefully adjusted to allow for reanimation were mass draw effects and card filtering (draw then discard) effects.

See that clause about exiling cards you discard? The design intention was for that to hose reanimation. Of all the balance issues with this card, you picked THAT one to shut down?

Now, Magic designers are free to print creatures with ridiculous gamestate impacts (like Griselbrand) and also cards like Faithless Looting without worrying that they will enable combo-like reanimation shenanigans.

Losing the ‘fair’ uses of powerful reanimation spells has been an acceptable price to pay to open up this design space. I’m 100% behind the decision to keep reanimation effects to (generally) five mana, although I would not mind seeing this bent every now and again in Standard to test the waters.


That’s all for today. Part 3 will come when it is ready, which might be a while. I still need to cover all of the following:

  • Creature power creep
  • Tempo-positive removal
  • Ramp
  • Planeswalkers
  • The threat/answer pendulum

and with that in mind, I think there will need to be a Part 4 as well.

  • sirgog

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The Cat’s In The Bag – Why The Emergency Ban Happened

Big news. Standard may well not suck this season.

The emergency banning has been announced.

Like a cat in a bag, waiting to drown, this time, they’re going down.

As depressing as that song is, I do love it.


In the short term this banning leaves Standard much more open for innovation, and for Amonkhet to have an impact on the format.

I initially will be trying some sort of ‘go big’ tapout strategy, straddling the line between midrange and control.

It remains to be seen whether the best payoff will be Noxious Gearhulk, Sorin, or something else, but I will initially test a BG splash W deck, using the better mana elves in the format to ramp toward those two big threats.

These plans may not work, and this deck might suck. But with the Copy Cat Combo gone, at least there is room to experiment with big lategames now.


Why did the emergency ban happen?

There were three main reasons for correcting Monday’s mistake, two of which Wizards touch in their announcement. The third, however, was what I believe was decisive.

The first reason was player and pro backlash.

We saw Brian Kibler announcing he would skip PT Amonkhet despite being qualified.

We saw people on the Spikes page on Reddit – a forum for players that self-identify as competitive – posting that they would skip GP Atlanta. GPs exist to cater to this audience.

And we saw widespread comments from people saying they were taking a seven week break from Standard and maybe even from Magic entirely.

This was a collection of anecdotes that painted an incomplete picture, but not enough on its own to justify an emergency ban.

Second was match results from MTGO leagues.

MTGO’s metagame moves at lightning speed.

In paper, tech percolates slowly. A Tier 1 deck with a surprise card added to it that dominates a tournament in Ohio on a Friday may not be noticed until same player pilots it to another incredible finish proving it was not just a fluke. This might take a week as many competitive players can’t get to more than one event per week.

However on MTGO, players aren’t limited in how many tournaments they can enter.

If you break a format and 5-0 a league, you can immediately reenter that league. If you keep putting up outstanding results, you will win a lot of prizes quickly, and other players have a massive incentive to reverse engineer and copy your success.

From Monday to the emergency ban, Copy Cat Combo put up even more dominant results than previously, making up about 50% of the reported 5-0 decklists. These lists are chosen randomly, so it is a reasonable assumption that 40-60% of all 5-0 lists were indeed copycat lists.

There were some innovative lists, but they were not enough to knock the Cats back from Tier 0 to a healthy Tier 1.

This data proved that Amonkhet cards helped Copy Cat more than they hurt it.

The third reason was MTGO league entry figures.

MTGO doesn’t just show how much of an impact Copy Cat was having on the tables. It showed something much more important – Copy Cat was driving people away from playing Standard entirely.

I wasn’t able to personally verify this, but I heard multiple sources state that the Modern league had more players enrolled than the Standard league, which is unprecedented.

Modern is a fairly healthy format at the moment (even if it does walk in the valley of the shadow of death). It has issues, but is generally a healthy format.

But because the format has a lot of expensive staples that can swing wildly in price, it is generally considerably less popular on MTGO than Standard is.

After the Monday bans went live, Standard attendance was collapsing, and this posed a serious problem for Wizards.

Much of the desire for Amonkhet’s cards comes from their utility in Standard. While some of the cards will see play outside the format, Standard exists to drive sales of newly printed sets.

And if Amonkhet sold poorly, we could end up with the WotC nightmare scenario – a repeat of the Fallen Empires debacle, where stores and distributors lost a lot of money on a bad set and became hesitant to buy MTG product at all.

This reason hasn’t been given publicly, but I think if you read between the lines it was the decisive reason for the second ever emergency ban.


Where to from here?

Like dialling 000 (or 911 for you Americans, 999 for those of you in the UK, or whatever your local emergency number is), the banhammer is an important tool to respond to a very serious situation.

And like 000, it should never be used frivolously.

Having a beloved deck or even a brew-in-progress be smashed by the banhammer is never pleasant, and I was certainly sad to see my (quite silly) attempt to port the Vintage deck Two-Card Monte into Modern get killed off in the Twin ban.


But the health of formats must come first. Magic is a competitive game first, and competitive games with degenerate strategies do not stay fun for long.

For anyone that owned a Saheeli deck, this ban will be a costly lesson – don’t buy into obviously broken decks lightly. If a deck is Tier 0, it will either be banned, or the metagame will adapt to push it out of Tier 0. Either way, you’ll be burned if you buy it at the peak of its popularity – and it is cheaper to get on top of this lesson with a Standard deck than with a Legacy one.

But for people that owned a diversified Standard collection that happened to include a couple of Saheelis, you will probably come out ahead overall from this ban. You’ll lose on the Saheelis and the Wandering Fumaroles, but other cards that were precluded from seeing play by the Copy Cat Combo will now see competitive demand again.

Wizards have solved the acute crisis Standard was in.

It’s now time for the design and development team to analyze the mistakes that were made and to learn from them.

Responses to these lessons that are cards will take 12 to 18 months to see print. Responses in the form of communication and decision making should happen quicker than that.

The dominance of threats over answers was the ultimate cause of the poor Standard formats since Eldritch Moon, and also the underwhelming formats before that. Emrakul, Copy Cat, Heart of Kiran, Snugglecopter, Gideon, Scrapheap Scrounger – all of these are threats that outclass most of the answers that have been printed.

Gideon remains a problem, and I would have preferred to see him taken out the back and shot. However, there are acceptable answers to him in the format in most colours – Cast Out/Stasis Snare in white; Censor, Disallow and Commit//Memory in blue, Never//Return and Ruinous Path in black, Glorybringer in red and Reality Smasher in strict colourless. Every one of those cards is highly playable in the format, and I hope they can put Zendikar’s Ally back in his place.

Overall, I think it’s time to start enjoying Standard again and to hope that Wizards learn their lesson – answers are important.


Wizards now have a Standard format worth promoting.

As a last point, it might be time to look into printing a couple of top-notch FNM promos in paper, and Event Participation promos on MTGO.

I’d suggest a one-off in-store Standard promotional day with full-art promotional copies of Fatal Push for all players, and a 4x playset of foil ones as a prize for the winner.

Allow stores with a less competitive clientele to distribute the foils differently (perhaps two to first, and two to randomly picked players – but anything that is communicated in advance and treats all players fairly is fine), and you don’t just cater to the Spike crowd, but you can make it for everyone.

This would really promote the set and the format.

And for people who owned Copy Cat and were disappointed to see their pet cat get drowned – it’s an opportunity to win back their interest.

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Commander B&R changes – Time to break stuff.

I’m going to preface this article by saying that you should NOT do this more than once in a casual Commander playgroup. Do it once for a laugh, but then put this broken deck away and play something else.

Today, someone decided that this little mistake was safe for Commander.

If you’ve never seen what Hulk does, it basically reads “When Protean Hulk dies, you win the game”.

You do need to run a few otherwise bad cards in your deck to make this happen, but there are a near-limitless number of ways to win once you have a Hulk death trigger. There are answers to some of the kills, but your opponents need to have them immediately or the game just ends.

How do you get the Hulk onto the battlefield and have it die? I’m glad you asked.

This card is terrible, yet banned in Legacy and restricted in Vintage, because of the Protean Hulk combo. If you have Hulk in hand, Flash resolving almost immediately wins you the game outright.

One of the easiest ways to win is to tutor for Karmic Guide and Viscera Seer first. Guide recurs Hulk, then you eat both the Hulk and the Karmic Guide, but this time tutor Body Double (cloning Guide) and Mogg Fanatic (the actual kill). Keep recurring these for the win.

So that’s a two-card combo that wins a multiplayer game for 2 mana. How do you get both cards in your hand?

Early Magic designers did not understand how powerful tutors would become. With a Summoner’s Pact in your library, any of these cards can (at least indirectly) get either piece of the combo.

In theory, a 100 card singleton format like Commander is intended to be a high variance format, but the legality of large numbers of broken tutors lets you ignore this restriction. You can’t assemble a combo as efficiently as you can in Vintage, but you have more consistency than Modern players do.

And there are a lot of tutors that have been printed that are good. You don’t need to go to the bottom of the barrel – you can play more than a dozen high-quality tutors alongside an enormous amount of card filtering.


So we have a Hulk-Flash core. Where to next?

This is Commander so as well as tutors, we have broken mana at a level that is second only to Vintage. Sol Ring is the second most broken mana rock of all time, second only to Black Lotus, and Mana Vault and Mana Crypt come close. We’ll play and abuse them all.

While building a deck with a lot of tutors and not even the pretence of being fair, there is no reason not to include this little monster, and plenty of reasons to do so.

In a deck where every land is nonbasic, Hermit Druid’s text box reads G, T: Put your entire library into your graveyard. Once you do that there are a million and one ways to win – a personal favorite is to cast Songs of the Damned

which generates a stupid amount of mana, at which point you flashback Unburial Rites to get Laboratory Maniac onto the battlefield, and then flashback Think Twice for the win. But there are other options such as using Soul of Innistrad to bring any creature-based combo from your graveyard into your hand, or flashing back Past in Flames, or casting Yawgmoth’s Will.

For mana producing lands, we’ll need a standard 5 colour Hermit Druid manabase. Ten fetchlands, ten revised duals, some shocklands and/or Amonkhet cycling lands, and some rainbow lands (like Vivid Creek, or City of Brass). Add in some other UG, UB and BG dual lands to finish to manabase.

I’m not going to put an actual decklist together.

I’m not quite mean enough to pull the trigger on this deck on MTGO, which is the one place I have (most of) the relevant cards.

But if you do build this monster and play it on MTGO to troll Commander players, make sure to post video replays of your turn 2 multiplayer wins. Just don’t outstay your welcome – once is funny, twice is irritating, and three times is antisocial.

Unbanning Hulk was a mistake, and the Commander Rules Committee need to learn that.

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Design Changes Over The Past 20 Years: A Balance Sheet, Part 1

Magic is always changing.

I started playing when Ice Age was a new set. Creatures were bad, and spells were good.

Juzam Djinn was out of print when I started playing and was considered the best creature ever printed, and to be broken.

It’s on the Reserve List so we haven’t seen how it might perform in today’s Standard formats, but I do not believe Juzam would be played.

The very similar Time Spiral card Plague Sliver saw little Constructed play, and creatures have improved further since then. While not strictly better, Phyrexian Obliterator and the off-colour Polukranos, Rumbling Slum and Deadbridge Goliath all outclass Juzam.

Order of the Ebon Hand was an example of a Constructed-playable creature that wasn’t considered broken, just solid.

It was above the curve at the time, capable of killing most 3 drops in combat if you had mana to sink into it, and was immune to a certain white removal spell.

This card would not be played in Constructed today and would not even come close. The far superior Nantuko Shade did very little the last time it was Standard legal.

Swords was one of many examples of answers that were extremely powerful, far outclassing the threats. And if you thought that you’d beat Swords by casting creature over creature and overloading the opponent’s removal, you might just get blown out by

This art is just spectacular, and the lack of a foil version of this is a crime even worse than the massacre depicted on the card.

This combination of powerful answers and weak threats drove reactive control to be the best archetype of the era.

Aggro and combo waxed and waned, and proactive control – prison strategies – occasionally reared their heads. Some decks combined aggro and elements of proactive control, creating something akin to Death and Taxes, or to those Delver variants in Legacy that run Stifle and Wasteland to attack the opponent’s mana base.

Midrange was unplayable, and the word wasn’t even used in Magic discussion. A deck with high threat density, occasional disruption, and a high mana curve was one of the two styles of decks most commonly associated with non-competitive players. (Ramping into enormous creatures being the other).

Most control mirrors were decided by the player that could first resolve a threat that was difficult to interact with. The poster child of these decks was Kjeldoran Outpost – an uncounterable threat that created inevitability. You would stabilize, drop the Outpost, and then ride it to victory.

This card was considered so dangerous by Wizards development that they printed Wasteland to keep it in check, a decision that has impacted Legacy long, long after the Dude Ranch has been forgotten.

That’s what Magic looked like in its first years. Let’s turn to how it has changed, starting with the first decade.


The First Wave: Design changes that predate Mirrodin


The first major design philosophy change was Wizards stopping printing the best combo cards. It took a while for them to learn what these all were (and they still make mistakes to this day), but the infamous Trix deck (which I touched on in this article last December) convinced Wizards to never again print broken fast mana or broken tutors.

Dark Ritual, Mana Vault, Demonic Tutor, Necropotence, Demonic Consultation, Vampiric Tutor – by the time Onslaught was printed in 2002, powerful cards of this type were no longer printed, except for the occasional mistake.

Note that all of these broken cards were used in fair decks as well as in combo.

Necropotence was used to fuel mono-black control decks.

Vampiric Tutor was used to fetch one-ofs of highly situational answers like Disenchant or Rain of Tears, or even maindeck hosers like Perish or Boil.

Blue control decks used Mana Vault to power out threats early, trying to avoid taking 25 turns to win.

But these cards were all at their best in combo strategies.

I would argue that removing these cards was entirely positive for the game.

Actually broken combo decks such as the Tolarian Academy decks that dominated ‘Combo Winter’ have led to a significant exodus from competitive Magic every time they dominate formats.

Even when combo decks are beatable but are the unequivocal best deck (as is the case with today’s Copy Cat Combo decks in Standard), they generally create anti-climactic games that end in a blowout. Either you resolve the combo and win, or the combo fails and you lose, and the only moment that matters in the game is one key turn.

I’m going to call the toning down of combo a positive development in Magic design.



The second type of card to stop being printed was proactive control cards. Most of these are today termed Prison cards, although I would also include some effects that didn’t lock up the game (like Persecute) in this category.

Winter Orb, Stasis, Persecute and Opposition (usually paired with token generators) – these were all powerful cards that controlled the game by restricting the opponent’s options.

Unlike traditional reactive control, these decks sought to establish control before the opponent was able to enact their gameplan.

Players that were unwilling to concede particularly loathed playing against proactive control strategies, especially Prison decks, because games devolve into ten turns of the loser going through the motions of trying to break out of the lock, until a finisher card came along to put them out of their misery.

Sometimes proactive control had a combo element to it as well – Humility and Orim’s Prayer were both acceptable anti-creature cards on their own, but together they formed a very hard lock against creature strategies.

Prison decks don’t really exist outside of Lantern Control in Modern now. Some elements of proactive control are found alongside aggressive elements in decks like Death and Taxes in Legacy and the more land-destruction heavy versions of Delver in Legacy (the ones that run both Stifle and Wasteland), but dedicated proactive control is a thing of the past.

Other than Lantern, the last truly good proactive control deck was No-Stick, which aimed to imprint Orim’s Chant on Isochron Scepter to blank the opponent’s main phase, and then finish the game with Teferi, Mage of Zhalfir who would blank every phase other than the main phase.

This deck was competitive in the Extended format – somewhat of a precursor to Modern – around 2007, when the format’s legal sets were everything from Invasion up to the most recent release, Future Sight.

I recall a PTQ match where I was playing an aggressive deck with elements of proactive control (Destructive Flow Aggro) in this format.

My opponent assembled the full No-Stick combo in a very, very long game 3, and was surprised that I was not conceding.

After they explained why they had the game in the bag more than once, my opponent tapped low on mana on their own turn to cast a card draw spell. In response I tapped four mana, and killed Teferi with the activated ability of a card they had completely forgotten existed.

Not a spell, not an attack: Channel is an activated ability.

With the opponent tapped low, they could not protect their Scepter unless they had a second Orim’s Chant in hand, which they did not. They chose not to Chant with their Scepter on their own turn, and so once Teferi died my Artifact Mutation made short work of the No-Stick and added two power to my board, allowing my creatures to attack for lethal the next turn.

Ten years later that remains one of the most memorable games of Magic I have ever played, despite occurring in a forgettable tournament where I threw away a 3-0 start and won the princely sum of 9 boosters.

I’ll be controversial here and state that I miss proactive control.

Proactive control decks attacked you from an axis you were unprepared for, changed the game’s texture and rules, and turned the game into a puzzle.

  • Could you break out of your opponent’s lock if they established it?
  • Would the opponent expect you to try?
  • What countermeasures might they have to stop you?
  • If you could not break out, how could you win before the lock slid into place?

When proactive control is very strong, and especially when it takes a while to win after establishing a lock, it can feel oppressive to play against. For this reason I think it’s positive that Wizards have stopped printing absolute top-tier proactive control cards.

However, the developers have gone too far in this direction.

The Planeswalker card type provides powerful tools for players to prevent themselves falling into locks, tools that did not exist when proactive control was last good.

No-Stick could not execute its gameplan against a resolved Liliana of the Veil. Opposition locks would seriously struggle to defeat Jace, Architect of Thought before he ultimates and wins the game.

And proactive control decks usually lack their own creatures or other answers to Walkers.

It’s not just Planeswalkers that are good at fighting proactive control either. Creature based aggressive decks are faster and require less mana to win now than they did in the past. Tapping out turn 4 for Opposition in Standard (note: this was written before Fellidar Guardian was put in a bag and drowned) would be risky if not suicidal.

I would be interested to see what effect a solid proactive control card, or a soft-lock combo like Isochron Scepter and Orim’s Chant would have on Standard. I would be less impressed to see such a strategy become Tier 1.

I’m going to conclude by saying Wizards got this design change only partly correct.

Wasteland, Sinkhole, Winter Orb, Stifle, Strip Mine and Rishadan Port are examples of proactive control cards that were too good at locking the opponent out early, and it is good that these cards are not legal in Modern or Standard.

But there are plenty of less oppressive examples of proactive control cards like Fulminator Mage, Ashiok, Nightmare Weaver (for the ultimate, which is a credible threat), and Teferi’s Moat.

I’d like to see more of these cards in current sets.

Proactive control is inherently strong against midrange, and this provides an important safety valve against any future Standard format that degenerates into midrange slugfests.

There is almost no greater feeling than being locked down by proactive control, only to claw your way into a win that you remember a decade later.


Coming in part 2 and (if needed) part 3: The Modern-era changes.

  • Mana Drain to Counterspell to Cancel: The decline of reactive control
  • Reanimation
  • Tempo-positive removal
  • Creature power creep
  • Planewsalkers
  • Ramp
  • Threats versus Answers
  • And possibly more.

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Response to Amonkhet Invocations

I am willing to reserve judgement on these until I see the finished product in my hands. I expect they will look stunning.

And even if they are not my thing, art is in the eye of the beholder. Someone else will probably like them. I don’t connect with the artistic style of Terese Nielsen or Rebecca Guay, but huge swathes of the playerbase regard them as the finest artists ever to do Magic cards, and I can respect that.

But please Wizards.

Never mess with card name or mana cost readability again.

I think a very good test to run any unusual borders past is the following: “If it were an alteration, would it be legal in a tournament?” This excellent article addresses this.

Note that the mana cost and name cannot be obscured or covered.

The mana cost on these is faded and the ‘artistic’ font choice for the type line and card name are hard enough to read when face up and not foiled. The power and toughness boxes look indistinct too, at least as bad as the 4th edition layout (which was improved at the time of Mirage because P&T needed to be bold).

I will be interested to see how often a player with both Force of Will and Counterbalance Invocations in their hand in Legacy will reveal the wrong one by accident because they look so similar.

The same may happen in Vintage with Mana Drain and Force of Will if Mana Drain is in the set (this is not known at this time, but it is exactly the sort of card that Wizards would include to sell packs).

I’m fine with Wizards experimenting with designs. They should take risks and try oddball designs, especially with products like the Masterpieces. I won’t like all of them but someone will.

But readability should never be sacrificed.

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Response to the B&R announcement: Can it be April 24 already?

The ‘don’t ban ANYTHING’ brigade got their way.

Barring unforseen tech breaking out, we will have a 100% solved metagame for Standard over the next six weeks. Six more weeks for those that own Crazy Cat Lady Combo and/or Mardu Vehicles to dominate every FNM and PTQQ, and for those that do not own the decks to not bother showing up.

After that, we will get the bans that should have happened today. Gideon and the cat will be taken out the back and shot, Reflector Mage might (or might not) be rehabilitated, and we will have had six shit weeks for nothing.

Someone might prove me wrong and innovate something impressive and new that shakes the format up. I hope so.

But that someone will not be me. I’ll just wait out the next six weeks, watch from the sidelines, and instead of spending money on Magic’s main format I’ll spend it on other things.

Wizards will get some of that money (MM3) but not all of it- some of my discretionary budget will end up being spent at the local karaoke bar, instead of at the LGS or on MTGO.


It’s a pity because once you look beyond the format warping cards, this Standard actually has a number of diverse buried strategies that could be interesting to explore.

Tamiyo is one of the most unique Planeswalkers ever designed. She’s also completely unplayable in Standard – the decision not to exclude Fellidar Sovereign from competitive play has de facto excluded Tamiyo.

Electrostatic Pummeler can sometimes suck to lose to, but at least you see it coming. This card and its deck have a fairly unique creature-based all-in playstyle not seen in Standard since the Heroic mechanic rotated out, and unlike its Modern and Legacy variants (Infect), it’s never been an oppressive deck.

It’s not my personal favorite type of deck to play with, but it is a deck I love playing against.

Again, thanks to the decision to not ban Fellidar Sovereign in competitive play, Electrostatic Pummeler has also been removed from the competitive landscape.

Brisela is legal in Standard for about 30 more weeks. It’s a shame that for the next six she is guaranteed not to be playable. Gisela is solid on her own, and without Gideon dominating every other white ‘fair’ strategy, I think the Twisted Sisters might at least have had Tier 2 potential.

But again, from the perspective of a competitive player, the decision to keep Gideon in the format removes the Twisted Sisters from it.


Can it be April 24 already?

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